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Annual Review of Constitution-Building: 2021

International IDEA’s Annual Review of Constitution-Building series provides a retrospective account of constitutional transitions around the world, the issues that drive them, and their implications for national and international politics.

2021 was a tumultuous year for many reasons—including the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic, a series of military coups around the world and the rumblings of war from Russia—and was no less so in the world of democracy. Unsurprisingly, therefore, the chapters in the ninth edition of International IDEA’s Annual Review of Constitution-Building reflect this instability. The chapters cover a number of themes including constitutional regulation of environmental protection, judicial review of constitutional amendments, reforming semi-presidential systems, codification of parliamentary conventions and military coups.

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